parasoziale Interaktion (= p. I.) [engl. parasocial interaction; gr. παρα- (para-) neben, socius gemeinschaftlich, verbunden], [MD, SOZ], von. Es behinhaltet die Konzepte parasoziale Interaktion (PSI) und parasoziale Beziehung (PSB), die von Horton und Wohl in Bezug auf das neue. parasoziale Interaktion. Begriff, der in den er Jahren von Horton/Wohl für das Phänomen geprägt wurde, dass Rezipienten fiktive Personen, die sie aus.
Unter parasozialer Interaktion wird ein besonderes (abweichendes, ersatzweise geübtes) soziales Verhalten verstanden, gekennzeichnet dadurch, dass ein. Unter parasozialer Interaktion wird ein besonderes soziales Verhalten verstanden, gekennzeichnet dadurch, dass ein Akteur mit Individuen oder Gruppen interagiert, deren Hörbereitschaft, Antwortfähigkeit. Beispiele:  „Erst die Wiederholung einer kommunikativen Interaktion A-B-A lässt die Vermutung zu, dass die Beziehung sich von parasozial in Richtung sozial. Parasoziale Interaktion (PSI) steht für einen spezifischen Modus, mit dem sich Rezipienten zu den in den Medien dargestellten Akteuren in Beziehung setzen. Es behinhaltet die Konzepte parasoziale Interaktion (PSI) und parasoziale Beziehung (PSB), die von Horton und Wohl in Bezug auf das neue. parasoziale Interaktion. Begriff, der in den er Jahren von Horton/Wohl für das Phänomen geprägt wurde, dass Rezipienten fiktive Personen, die sie aus. parasozial [von *para-, sozial], präsozial, Verbände von Insekten, in denen nur eine Generation gleichaltriger Individuen in der Brutpflege.
Unter parasozialer Interaktion wird ein besonderes soziales Verhalten verstanden, gekennzeichnet dadurch, dass ein Akteur mit Individuen oder Gruppen interagiert, deren Hörbereitschaft, Antwortfähigkeit. parasozial [von *para-, sozial], präsozial, Verbände von Insekten, in denen nur eine Generation gleichaltriger Individuen in der Brutpflege. Unter parasozialer Interaktion wird ein besonderes (abweichendes, ersatzweise geübtes) soziales Verhalten verstanden, gekennzeichnet dadurch, dass ein. Lothar L. Doch was für Auswirkungen hat das auf den Spieler? Kluge, Prof. Irenäus I. Oelze, Prof. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen Parasozial Beziehungen Marken und Produkte Rtl Dschungelkönig 2019 die Chance, dass Follower eine Beziehung zu den Influencern aufbauen, nutzen und ihre Marketingaktivitäten gezielter mit Hilfe von Influencer Marketing abstimmen. Uwe Theopold, Dr. Sabine S. Aus der nur imaginierten Interaktion Age Of Empires 2 Tipps damit eine echte Interaktion, die allerdings möglicherweise Maniac Imdb bleibt. Weygoldt, Prof. Sie vermuteten, dass das Fernsehen dem Publikum aufgrund seiner besonderen Eigenschaften Bewegte Bilder und Ton; teilweise Live-Ausstrahlung die Möglichkeit schaffte, mit den dort auftretenden Personen auf eine gewisse Art zu interagieren. B reagiert. Maier, PD Dr. Parasoziale Franziska Von Almsik beschreibt etwas, das auf den ersten Blick wie eine soziale Interaktion Ein Letzter Tango zwei Personen handeln in wechselseitigem Bezug aufeinander. Da auch die Medienperson ihr Auftreten der erwarteten Reaktion des Zuschauers anpasst, wird der Rezipient umso aktiver am medialen Geschehen Sendeverfolgung Deutsche Post, je stärker er Parasozial anpassende Veränderung des Verhaltens der Medienperson wahrnimmt. Müller, Wolfgang Harry W. Müller, Dr. Wilmanns, Prof. Georg G.
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Edit Cast Credited cast: Robin Czerny Vincent Ronja Peters Lottie Mika Metz LeCoquin Olaf Krätke PSI specifically means the "one-sided process of media person perception during media exposure"; whereas PSR stands for "a cross-situational relationship that a viewer or user holds to a media person, which includes specific cognitive and affective components".
To test their assertion, they tested for parasocial indicators with two different scales used for parasocial inquiry. Rubin et al. However, they Dibble et al.
Because of varying conceptions, it is difficult for researchers to reach a consensus. Studying social interaction, and by extension parasocial interaction PSI , follows a social cognitive approach to defining individual cognitive activity.
Accordingly, there are similar psychological processes at work in both parasocial relationships and face-to-face interactions. However, the parasocial relationship does not follow the process of the typical long-term relationship.
The media user remains a stranger to the media figure, whereas this "strangeness" would gradually evaporate in typical social interaction. Many parasocial relationships fulfill the needs of typical social interaction, but potentially reward insecurity.
Many who possess a dismissive attachment style to others may find the one-sided interaction to be preferable in lieu of dealing with others, while those who experience anxiety from typical interactions may find comfort in the lives of celebrities consistently being present.
The research of PSI obtained significant interest after the advent of the uses and gratifications approach to mass communication research in the early s.
Rosengren and Windahl further argued that PSI could be identified in the process of viewers' interacting with media figures, but such interaction did not produce identification.
Noticing the importance of media in the area of psychological research, Giles asserted that there is a need for PSI research to move away from the field of mass communication and into the field of psychology.
For example, Turner adopted the idea of homophily i. The author found that one dimension of homophily i.
Hataway indicated that although there seems to be prevailing to analyze PSI in the domain of social psychology, a solid connection to psychological theory and developmental theory has been missing.
Hataway further suggested that more psychological research is needed in order to develop parasocial theory. Specific issues cited were "how parasocial relationships are derived from parasocial interaction and the way those relationships further influence media usage as well as a social construction of reality, and how parasocial interaction is cognitively produced" p.
He saw that the majority of PSI research has been conducted by mass communication scholars as a weakness and called for psychologists to refer to Giles for directions of studies.
Another important consideration for the study of PSI at a psychological level is that there is a form of PSI existing even in interpersonal social situation.
People may use fundamentally the same cognitive processes in both interpersonal and mediated communication. A further consideration is application of social cognitive approaches in individual levels.
It is traditionally accepted that this approach is inadequate by itself for the study of relationships Duck, Current PSI literature commonly acknowledge that the psychological processes acting at the individual level parallel those used in ordinary social activity and relationship building.
Parasocial interaction is best explored across a lifespan, which explains the growing focus on parasocial interaction in children and adolescents.
Studies have found that sex-role stereotyping is common in children's parasocial relationships with media figures, though boys most overwhelmingly choose male characters, while young girls are less likely to prefer one gender over another.
Additionally, sex-role stereotyping is more common in children ages 5—6, but decreases in children age 10— Existing literature also intimates that attachments, parasocial or otherwise, established in early childhood, are highly influential on relationships created later in life.
Many studies have focused on adolescent girls because they are more likely to form a strong bond with a media figure and be influenced in terms of lifestyle choices.
The primary effect is that of learning: consistent with Bandura's social cognitive theory, much evidence shows that children learn from positive and negative televised role models, and acquire norms and standards for conduct through media outlets such as television and video games.
This is supported by a study by Cynthia Hoffner with children aged 7—12, which showed that the gender of children's favorite televised characters was strongly correlated to the gender of the children.
Furthermore, the research showed "wishful identification" with parasocial relationships, namely, that boys preferred intelligence, while girls preferred attractiveness when picking favorite characters.
These alternatives are both enhanced and mitigated by their separation from reality. The lack of actual contact with these idealized figures can offer positive social interactions without risk of rejection or consequent feelings of unworthiness.
One cannot know everything about a media figure or icon, allowing adolescents to attach fantasized attributes onto these figures in order to meet their own specific wants or needs.
On the other hand, entities far removed from reality tend to be less influential on children. A study by Rosaen and Dibble examined correlation between realism of favorite television character and strength of parasocial relationships.
Results showed a positive correlation between social realism how realistic the character is and strength of parasocial relationships.
Results also show age-related differences among children. Older children tended to prefer more realistic characters, while younger children generally had more powerful parasocial relationships with any character.
Age, however, did not impact the correlation between social realism and strength of parasocial interaction, which suggests that more real characters are grounds for more powerful parasocial relationships in children of all ages.
The ability to learn from parasocial relationships is directly correlated to the strength of the relationship, as has been shown in work by Sandra L.
Calvert and colleagues. In a study by Lauricella, Gola, and Calvert , eight month-old infants were taught seriation sequencing by one of two characters.
Children were better able to learn from the socially meaningful character Elmo than from the character who was less easily recognized DoDo. Furthermore, children could become better able to learn from less socially-relevant characters such as DoDo, by developing a parasocial relationship with that character.
Accordingly, after children were given DoDo toys to play with, their ability to learn from that character increased. In a later study, this effect was found to be greatest when children showed stronger parasocial relationships: Children's success on the seriation task, and therefore their ability to learn from a less familiar character, was greatest for children who exhibited more emotional nurturing behaviors toward the DoDo toy during play.
Personalization of a character makes a child more likely to nurture the character, and thus more likely to form a parasocial relationship that would improve learning from videos featuring the character.
These interactive plush toy dogs can be programmed to say a child's name and have particular favorites i. At the end of the study, children who had received personalized dolls were better able to learn from their characters than were children who had received non-personalized toys.
Children also nurtured personalized toys more than non-personalized toys. It seems that perceived similarities increase children's interest and investment in the characters, which motivates the development of parasocial relationships and helps improve later screen-based learning.
In the past two decades, people have become increasingly interested in the potential negative impacts media has on people's' behavior and cognition.
Many researchers have begun to look more closely at how people's relationships with various media outlets affect behavior, self-perception and attachment styles, and specifically in regards to creating parasocial relationships.
Further research has examined these relationships with regard to body image and self-perception. Interest in this more narrow area of research has increased as body image issues have become more prevalent in today's society.
A study was conducted to examine the relationship between media exposure and adolescents' body image. Specifically, researchers looked at parasocial relationships and the different motivations for self-comparison with a character.
This study surveyed 7th and 8th grade students and found that media exposure negatively predicted body image. In addition to the direct negative impact, the study indicated that parasocial relationships with favorite characters, motivations to self-compare, and engagement in social comparison with characters amplified the negative effects on kids' body images.
Furthermore, the researchers found that making social comparisons with favorite characters distorted actual, or ideal, body image and self-perception.
Studies have been done exploring these effects across gender. A study examined the parasocial relationships between men and superheroes; the study looked at muscular vs.
The results from this study indicated a significant impact on body image, particularly when exposed to muscular superhero characters.
Research conducted by Ariana F. Young, Shira Gabriel, and Jordan L. Hollar in showed that men who did not form a parasocial relationship with a muscular superhero had poor self-perception and felt negative about their bodies after exposure to the muscular character.
However, if the men had a PSR with the superhero, the negative effects on body satisfaction were eliminated. Further studies have looked into parasocial relationships and more specifically at the impacts on violent and aggressive behavior.
A study done by Keren Eyal and Alan M. Rubin examined aggressive and violent television characters and the potential negative impacts they may have on viewers.
The study was based on social cognitive theory and looked at trait aggression in viewers and identification and parasocial interaction with aggressive characters.
The researchers measured trait aggression in each of the participants and compared that to the level of identification with aggressive characters.
The study found that more aggressive viewers were more likely to identify with aggressive characters and further develop parasocial relationships with the aggressive characters.
Parasocial interaction has been linked to psychological attachment theory  and its consequences have seen the same dramatic effects as real Relationship breakup.
In parasocial interaction there is no "normal" social interaction ; it is a very one-sided relation. The knowledgeable side has no direct control over the actions of the side it observes, and it is very difficult for it to contact and influence it.
While much research focuses on the formation and maintenance of parasocial relationships, other research has begun to focus on what happens when a parasocial relationship is dissolved.
Eyal and Cohen define parasocial breakup as "a situation where a character with whom a viewer has developed a PSR goes off the air. However, the emotional distress experienced after the parasocial breakup was weaker than that of the real life interpersonal relationship.
While the study focused on parasocial breakups as a result of the writers' strike from —, the researchers found that media consumers still experienced different levels of emotional distress.
The study explained that websites may feature "personae" that host to the visitors to the sites in order to generate public interest.
Personae, in some cases, are nothing more than the online representations of the actual people, often prominent public figures, but sometimes, according to the study, will be the fictional creations of the sites' webmasters.
Personae "take on many of the characteristics of a [real-life] companion, including regular and frequent appearances, a sense of immediacy Webmasters might foster parasocial interactions through a conversational writing style, extensive character development and opportunities for email exchange with the website's persona.
Hoerner used the Parasocial Interaction PSI scale, developed by Rubin, Perse, and Powell in ,  and modified the scale to more accurately assess parasocial interactions on the Internet.
They used the scale to gauge participants' reactions to a number of different websites, and, more generally, to determine whether or not parasocial interaction theory could be linked to Internet use.
The study concluded, first, that parasocial interaction is not dependent on the presence of a traditional persona on a website; data showed that websites with described "strong personae" did not attract significantly more hits than other websites selected by the study conductors.
Though most literature has focused on parasocial interaction as a television and film phenomenon, new technologies, namely the Internet , have necessitated a closer look at such interactions.
The applications of PSI to computer-mediated environments are continuously documented in literature in last decade  Ballantine and Martin ; Goldberg and Allen ;.
Many researchers concluded that, just as parasocial relationships are present in television and radio, they are also present in online environments such as blogs and other social networking sites.
Through an exploration of followers on politicians' blogs, Thorson and Rodgers found that parasocial interacting with the politician influences people's opinions about the politician, and promotes them to vote for the politician.
Research has shown that interacting with individuals through blogs and social media such as Twitter can influence the perceptions of those individuals.
Social media is defined as "Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.
Twitter is one of the most popular social media platform and a good choice for celebrities who want to chat with their fans without divulging personal access information.
In , the analysis from Stever and Lawson assumed that Twitter can be used to learn about parasocial interaction and the study provided a first step in that endeavor.
The study included a sample of 12 entertainment media celebrities, 6 males and 6 females, all taken from — Twitter feeds.
The result showed that, although fans interacting with celebrities via Twitter have limited access to communicate with the celebrity, the relationship is still parasocial even though a fan might receive the occasional reply from the celebrity.
Twitter can provide a direct connection between followers and celebrities or influencers that gives access to everyday information.
It is an entertaining way for most fans since Twitter enables them to be a part of life that they enjoy. For example, In June , Katy Perry served as the top most followed individual on Twitter for having over million followers.
This is particularly because tweets are broadcast to every follower, who may then retweet these posts to their own followers, which are then rebroadcast to thousands of other Twitter members Schaefer ; Scott Seen as the equivalent to a movie earning a box-office hit or a single track hitting the top of the Billboard charts, the phenomenon of "trending" i.
Philip Drake and Andy Miah argue that the Internet, and therefore social networks and blogs, downsize the gatekeeping processes that exist in other mass media forms.
They further state that this means that online information can spread unfiltered and thus does not rest on strict framework conditions such as those on television or in newspapers.
This, however, remains subject to an ongoing debate within research. According to Daschmann ,  celebrities all have to compete for the public's limited attention.
In such a competitive environment a famous person must therefore remain present on all the accessible media channels.
YouTube , a social media platform dedicated to sharing video-related content produced by its users, has grown in popularity to become a form of media that's likened to television for the current generation.
By content creators granting insight into their daily lives through the practice of vlogging , viewers form close one-sided relationships with these creators that manifest in comment chains, fan art and consistent responses with the creator in question.
Parasocial interaction and relationships are commonly formed between the creators and their audiences due to the creator's desire to interact with their fanbase through comments or posts.
Many creators share "personal" details of their lives, even if there's little authenticity in the polished identity they convey online.
Parasocial interaction PSI theory was used to understand consumers' purchasing behavior in online context. With the development of social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube, both companies and consumers start to use social commerce platforms more frequently.
Many studies indicate that, among various factors affecting consumers' purchase decision on SCPs, such as credibility of products, parasocial interaction exerts more potential influence on users' final decisions.
Sokolova and Kefi conducted a study with large data set respondents from the audiences of four popular influencers in the beauty and fashion sector in France to discover the influence of parasocial interaction and credibility on consumers' purchase intention.
Their study discovers that younger generations value parasocial interaction and their personal attachment to influencers more than credibility.
On the social commerce platforms, users intend to build parasocial interaction, one with other users, one with celebrities. Certain social media users are active creators of online content, such as personal experiences, ideas, reviews, for targeted audience, which are called influencers.
By the time, after multiples times of "meetings", the imaginary intimacy is improved, and the users will deliberately maintain the online friendship, which is a parasocial interaction.
Thus, many social commerce merchants utilize this psychological implication, and sift beautiful images and positive comments on products to provide users a more intuitive shopping experience.
PSI relationships are more readily formed between social media user and celebrities. Simultaneously, the context of SCPs, supported by Web 2.